Saturday, November 16, 2019
Prejudice Examples Prejudice Essay Example for Free
Prejudice Examples Prejudice Essay Prejudice means pre-judging, and is defined as having a bad opinion of a group without sufficient evidence, by thinking of that group in terms of unverified stereotypes. Prejudice is a preconceived judgment or opinion. Strictly speaking, prejudice can also be favoring a group without justifiable grounds or sufficient knowledge. But the most common definition of prejudice is an irrational attitude of hostility directed against an individual, group, or race. 2. Why are people prejudiced against others? Some factors are: ignorance, fear of someone different, low self-esteem, insecurity, a need to feel superior, or negative personal experiences with individuals from that group. Some people are prejudiced because they have a need to protect and maintain their self-image. Some people have the need to express their identity by excluding others. It makes them feel good to put others down through name calling, such as nigger, honky, kike, chink, faggot. Prejudice is learned behavior and is usually passed down to people from their family or is derived from their friends. 3. Most psychologists have long believed that fear is a prelude to hatred. 4. Some common types of prejudice: a) misogyny Hatred of, or hostility toward women (As an example of how pervasive male dominance has been in human history, the word for hatred of men (misandry) is still not a common word, in fact most dictionaries do not even include it. ) b) xenophobia fear or dislike of strangers or the unknown, often used to describe nationalistic political beliefs and movements c) homophobia fear of homosexuals, or people thought to be lesbian, gay, or bisexual. d) anti-semitism hatred of Jews. e) racism a form of discrimination based on race, especially the belief that one race is superior to another. Racism may be expressed individually and consciously, through explicit thoughts, feelings, or acts, or socially and unconsciously, through institutions that promote inequality between races. f) bigotry the intolerance and prejudice of a bigot, that is, a prejudiced person who is intolerant of any opinions differing from their own 5. Recent experiments were conducted at Dartmouth College with the help of brain-imaging equipment and some undergraduates. They found that racial prejudice makes you stupider. According to their findings, the more biased people are, the more their brain power is taxed by contact with someone of another race, as they struggle not to say or do anything offensive. The effect is so strong, that even a five minute conversation with a black person left some of the white subjects unable to perform well on a test of cognitive ability PREJUDICE (ITS FUNCTIONS) As an attitude, prejudice can function as a schema for organizing information about members of a group Information that is consistent with our prejudices (rather than inconsistent). Tends to receive more attention, is rehearsed more frequently, is more likely to be remembered Even though prejudice can be positive or negative, lets focus on the negative Prejudice involves negative feelings when they are in the presence of,or even think about, members of the group Prejudice often involves stereotypes, suggesting that all members of a group behave in certain ways and have certain characteristics Therefore, prejudice has both cognitive and affective components Affective component is the positive or negative attitude/feeling Cognitive component contains stereotypes. Origins of Prejudice Direct intergroup conflict Social learning Social categorization: Us vs. them Cognitive sources: stereotypes, illusory correlations, outgroup homogeneity Direct Intergroup Conflict This research is based on , or lead to, realistic conflict theory Idea is that real disparities or competition between groups leads to hostility (negative prejudice). Even perceived threats (relative deprivation) can lead to prejudice Think about strife existing between early Mormons and other groups. Can partly be explained in terms of realistic conflict theory, accounted for in terms of real deprivation or perceived deprivation. Some would argue that this theory applies to increasing prejudice (and discrimination) currently prevalent here in Utah Robbers Cave study (Sherif et al. , 1961) Rattlers and Eagles in separate cabins formed close attachments to others in own group (Week 1) Groups brought into competition with one another (Week 2) Groups developed strong prejudices Superordinate goals introduced (e. g. , fixing bus) (Week 3) Conflict reduced. Hovland Sears (1940) correlation between economic conditions and racial violence Most of 4761 lynchings in US between 1882 and 1930 occurred in the South, and most victims were African Americans Farm value of cotton and per-acre value of cotton each year was strongly correlated with the number of lynchings in each year Again, think about realistic conflict notion in light of current levels of prejudice (and discrimination in the U. S. ). As economic conditions worsen, prejudice and discrimination are on the rise. Social learning as source of prejudice. Children acquire negative attitudes toward various social groups through direct and vicarious learning experiences Parents, teachers, friends, the mass media all play roles in the development of prejudice Consider how minority groups or the two genders have been portrayed in the media Some even argue that we are born with a bias to perceive dark stimuli as more fearful than lighter stimuli (shown with babies and toddlers using neutral stimuli) Social categorization as source of Prejudice: Us vs. Them People tend to view us in favorable terms and them more negatively Ingroup-outgroup distinction affects attribution. We tend to attribute desirable behaviors of ingroup members to stable internal causes, but tend to attribute desirable behaviors of outgroup members to unstable or to external causes- sometimes called theultimate attribution error How does social categorization result in prejudice? Tajfel (1982) proposes that that individuals seek to enhance their self-esteem by identifying with social groups. This is successful to the extent that persons perceive their group(s) as somehow superior to other group(s) Basking in reflected glory (BIRGing) Chap. 3. Even if there is an inferior ingroup member, this leads to considerable derogation so as to preserve value of the group Cutting off reflected failure (CORFing) Chap. 3 Branscombes research in Chap. 5 This notion of social categorization bears on Tajfel and Turners Social Identity Theory, which predicts, among other things: higher ingroup favoritism when self-esteem threatened on a situational basis heightened levels of ingroup favoritism when the group is really small (a minority) heightened levels of ingroup favoritism when one feels a marginal member of group. PREJUDICE EXAMPLES Prejudice has been defined as an outlook towards a community or an individual, based solely upon a preconceived idea or preference and devoid of any objectivity and reasoning. The examples mentioned in this article will help the reader in understanding prejudice in a better way. Prejudice is described as a preconceived notion harbored against a particular group or a person based on the nationality, race, caste, color, sex, sexual preferences, creed or other personal preferences. The concept has been debated ferociously by psychologists and social researchers. Some have called it a personality trait or habit, while others have described it merely as an emotion. Studies and experiments which have been conducted in this regard, go on to prove that more often than not, prejudice comes about due to conformity to social norms. In this regard, the words antipathy and discrimination are closely linked with prejudice. Though prejudice may not always be negative, over the last century, prejudice and discrimination have been spoken of in the same breath. This has led to a negative connotation of prejudice. Examples of Prejudice # 1: If someone is walking in a secluded area in the night, and a group of senior citizens who are walking with canes in hand, come from the opposite side, the person will not feel threatened. However, if instead of senior citizens, three teenagers dressed in jeans and t-shirts with lots of metal chains around their neck are approaching from the other side, the person might feel threatened a bit, even without any kind of provocation from their end. # 2: It is a general perception that people with mental illnesses are prone to violence. This perception has developed from the stereotypes portrayed in movies or written about in books, wherein a mentally ill person becomes violent and goes on a rampage. Although, there are a few isolated cases of mentally ill people, who have a tendency towards violence, yet, if we look at the statistics, they show that mentally ill people are no more violence prone than the normal people. # 3: Human beings are categorized into a number of races, based on their geographical location, physical characteristics, culture, language and history. It is a social concept, not biological. For example, in America, there are Caucasians, African-Americans, Asians etc who differ from each other physically. However, being different no way makes a race superior or inferior to another. Yet, there are certain people who think, believe and act in ways that suggest that their race is superior to others. Racists as they are referred to, are prejudiced and if you look at history, they have even resorted to violence against the races they considered inferior. # 4: Gender discrimination, whether at the workplace or at home is another commonly observed prejudice that exists in todays society. An organization which hires more male candidates and rejects women (or vice versa), due to their gender, is said to be prejudiced. One more example is of an organization where women are hired equally, but not given top jobs. Such organizations are practicing gender discrimination too. # 5: Instances of prejudices based on religion are found all over the world. Although, most religions preach tolerance and acceptance of other religions, yet, fanatics are found everywhere. Usually, it is seen that people who believe more in following the rituals and religious practices, rather than taking religion as a means to reach God, are more likely to engage in discrimination and prejudice against people who follow a religious belief other than theirs. # 6: People belonging to one nation may sometimes discriminate against those that belong to some other country. This is especially true in case of a war or other conflicts between the two countries. In such circumstances, people belonging to the other country, with whom one is in conflict with, are considered outsiders and may even have to face hostility, especially if they happen to stay in the your country. Looking at the various prejudice examples, it can be concluded that we are prejudiced against people, when we assume that they have certain characteristics. These assumptions develop when we do not have direct contact with them or we fear them due to they being a minority and different from us. Some might also be passed on from one generation to another such as those against women. Since prejudices are so widespread, in order to combat them, understanding their nature is very important. By spreading the message of brotherhood, developing understanding in people, educating people, making them aware, and promoting inter-group dialog, small steps towards a more tolerant and egalitarian society can be taken. Read more at Buzzle: http://www. buzzle. com/articles/prejudice-examples. html Prejudice derives from Prejudge, which is to judge someone or something without out all the available facts. Some times this can be good and some times not so :- Example One. He was prejudiced to give her the job solely on her looks. Great you think she got the job! but what about her qualifications? Example Two The guy suffered from racial prejudice and so didnt let the man into his house to fix the boiler. The guy lost out just cause he didnt like the colour of his skin and is now sat in a cold house. Example Three The jury were prejudiced towards the defendant because they already knew he was guilty of other crimes, but were not pertaining to the case in hand. The mans past had nothing to do with what he was standing trail for but the jurors had already a predetermined what type of man he was. A: The word prejudice, meaning literally pre-judgment, is defined as having a preconceived opinion about something or someone. It has acquired its current popular definition, of bias against a particular group of people, during the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century. Under that latter definition, here are three examples of prejudice: * Asking to be seated (or re-seated) in a restaurant or theater, away from a group whose ethnic or religious heritage frightens or offends you; this could be anything from Italian businessmen (might be mobsters) to a Middle Eastern family (could be terrorists). * Seeking out a male auto mechanic, under the belief that a female mechanic would be less qualified; or hiring a female kindergarten teacher, thinking that a male teacher wouldnt be as compassionate. * Denying a gay couple the right to rent an apartment. But its important to keep in mind that 1) everyone has prejudices, and 2) not all prejudices are negative. For example, you may decide to see a new movie because you heard that one of your favorite actors is starring in it; this is an example of positive prejudice, or prejudice forsomething. Prejudice Each of us is unique with our own talents and skills and experiences to offer. There are many ways that people can be different from you: * moral or spiritual beliefs * cultural background * intellectual strengths and weaknesses (e. g. being better at languages or math) * social skills and preferences (e. g. being shy instead of outgoing) * tastes, interests and hobbies (e. g. liking sports or music) * physical features (e. g. sex, size, skin colour, body shape) * sexual and/or gender orientation or preferences. While we all benefit by being surrounded by people with different beliefs, skills and experiences, these differences can sometimes cause people to be targets of hatred and prejudice. To understand what prejudice is, its important to be able to define words like stereotypes and discrimination. Prejudice can have some serious effects, but there are many things you can do to recognize and reduce prejudice in your own life. If you have more questions about prejudice and discrimination, talk to a trusted adult (like a parent, relative or teacher) or call Kids Help Phone at 1-800-668-6868. Looking for something specific? Go straight there. * Definitions and examples * The effects of prejudice * What you can do about prejudice Definitions and examples Stereotypes are generalizations When we assume that people of shared physical, religious, cultural or other characteristics have certain behavioural attributes, this is called a stereotype. Some examples of stereotypes are: * Men are more adventurous than women * Women are more emotional than men * Aboriginal people are all alcoholics * Gay men are all effeminate Prejudice is a belief. Prejudice is often based on stereotypes. It divides people into inferior and superior groups based on what one person thinks about another person or group. Some examples of prejudice are: * Racism or Anti-Semitism believing that race, skin colour or culture makes certain people inferior (e. g. believing that whites are superior to people of colour or people who practice Judaism) * Classism believing that certain economic classes are superior (e. g. the rich are superior to the poor). * Sexism believing that sex and gender determine status (e.g. boys and men are superior to girls and women) * Lookism believing that appearance and looks determine status (e. g. unattractive people are inferior to attractive people) * Homophobia/Heterosexism believing that sexual or gender orientation makes one group inferior (e. g. heterosexual people are superior to homosexual people) * Ableism believing that physical and/or mental ability makes one group superior (e. g. that differently abled people are inferior to typically abled people). * Ageism believing that age determines status (e. g.adults are superior to young people and the elderly) Discrimination is an action When people act based on their prejudices, they are discriminating against others. Some examples of discrimination include * A rich-looking person getting served before a poorer-looking person at a restaurant * A woman getting turned down for a job promotion in favour of a man * A police officer keeping a closer watch on a black teenager than a white teenager hanging out in front of a store * An woman in her 30s getting treated better than a woman in her 70s by a store? Staff The effects of prejudice Prejudice and discrimination are harmful behaviours that limit the opportunities of certain groups of people by reducing or withholding access to people defined as inferior and by increasing or extending access to people defined as superior. Some of the opportunities that prejudice and discrimination limit include: * approval and popularity * rights and privileges * power * knowledge * employment * promotion. Prejudice and discrimination also leave people open to a variety of social risks including: * victimization (violence, abuse, theft and bullying) * suspicion (blame or assumed guilt for crimes and harmful actions) * rejection, alienation and isolation (which all can lead to low self-esteem, self-hatred and self-destruction) * exploitation and oppression One of the worst things about prejudices is that over time people may come to believe what they hear and may start to believe that they are superior/inferior. This can lead to: * emotional suffering * reduced self-esteem * sense of futility or lack of control * blaming victims * losing hope in the future * fear/mistrust of others * lack of respect for authority What you can do about prejudice There are many ways that you can help reduce prejudice and discrimination. Here are just a few suggestions: * refuse to laugh at racist or sexist jokes * refuse to be allowed to jump ahead in a line-up and point out that people who have been waiting longer have a right to be served first * refuse to see movies, read books, play video games or participate in actives that promote violence or discrimination against certain groups * confront your friends or peers who express prejudiced or discriminatory beliefs * support associations or organizations whose mission is to help address the roots or effects of prejudice * confront prejudice in schools by working with a diverse group of people * confront prejudice at work by refusing to work in an environment that supports discriminatory policies or practices. If you have more questions about prejudice or discrimination, talk to a trusted adult like a parent, relative, teacher or religious leader, or call Kids Help Phone at 1-800-668-6868 and talk to one of our professional counsellors. BEYOND PREJUDICE REDUCING YOUR PREJUDICIAL BEHAVIORReducing prejudices needs to be more than an organizational goal; it needs to be a personal goal for each of us. The following list contains things we can do as individuals to help reduce prejudices within ourselves and in those around us. 1. Acknowledge that you have learned prejudicial information about other people. Without this acknowledgment nothing can change. Only through an acknowledgment of the prejudicial learnings can the misinformation be openly discussed and dealt with in a way which is likely to bring about change. It is clear that if we canÃ¢â¬â¢t talk about it, we surely canÃ¢â¬â¢t change it. 2. Confront without guilt or blame the stereotypes that you have learned. Guilt for having learned information is not really appropriate. It would have been difficult or nearly impossible to avoid learning this information. You probably learned it before you were able to think about the information critically. To focus on either blame or guilt distracts one from the need for change. It also focuses ones attention from the present into the past and leaves one feeling helpless or powerless to make any changes. 3. Enter a supportive group or a supportive relationship for making the needed changes. We tend to change our interpersonal behaviors and beliefs most effectively in an interpersonal context. Another person or other people can help us to test new learnings, gain new information, hold us to our insights and our commitments. They can do all this while providing us with support as we try new ideas, behaviors and beliefs. 4. Make a commitment to change and make a commitment to a process of change. The commitment made to others is a stronger commitment than the one made alone or to oneself. The commitment should be to working on a change process. Simply making a commitment to change is not as likely to result in the modification of behavior as a commitment to change that includes a commitment to a process. It is most effective to make an agreement to meet regularly with someone to discuss how you are both changing. Mutual commitments are both powerful and healthy. In this way, people approach the process as equals and are more likely to adhere to the process of changing. Keeping these commitments in a log, along with notes on the actions that one has taken, is a helpful way of sharing and supporting each other in a process of mutual prejudice reduction. 5. Become aware of your own self-talk about other groups of people. Becoming aware of ones own self-talk is critical in the process of changing the early stereotyped beliefs that one has learned. Talk about where those messages came from and the messages limiting effect with a person who will be accepting and non-judgmental. Knowing what those messages are is critical to changing them and replacing them with positive messages. 6. Challenge the irrationality of the prejudicial thoughts or self-talk statements. Get information to disprove each prejudicial thought. Most general statements about a population of people are untrue. One only needs to look more closely to see that almost any statement about them will fall apart under examination. Take the time to examine and challenge the thoughts that limit or devalue other people. 7. Increase your exposure to or contact with those who belong to the group(s) toward which you have learned some prejudicial stereotypes. Misconceptions remain effective only when you avoid contact with those about whom you have misconceptions. It is always helpful to increase your exposure to people that belong to the group about which you have stereotyped thoughts. When you are doing this, besure that you are not making contact in a way which will only affirm your stereotypedbeliefs. In finding people who are representative of this group, you might ask yourself, Is this the method I would want someone to use who wanted to learn about people of my nationality, race, age, religious belief, or culture? As you enter this process, keep in mind the tremendous diversity within any group. 8. Thought-stopping is a valuable process for changing ones self-talk about others. It is often helpful to have a pleasant image to focus upon to use as an abrupt interruption to your thoughts whenever you discover that you have started to think stereotypical thoughts about a member of another group. If you plan what image to focus upon and shift to that image very suddenly each time you think the stereotyped thought, it weakens the stereotyped thought. Your replacement image might be of something strongly positive about this group of people or about the absolute absurdity of the stereotype you learned. In building these images, it might be helpful to try making generalized statements about all the people who might be seen as like you in some aspect. Experience the difficulty in this process. 9. Make use of the Premack Principle, a small rule that has power for change. Making something one does often or something one likes to do contingent upon doing ones positive practice is one of the most effective ways of ensuring it gets done. For example, one might agree to meet with or report to ones partner each week before taking out the trash or filling the car with gas or some other task. Tying the two tasks together in an agreement is an effective way of making and keeping a commitment. One might also use this principle in changing ones self talk. To do this, one might agree to say an affirming statement about a group of people every time he or she sees a member of that group. 10. Learn how other groups see your own identity group. Learn from those in other groups how your own group is seen. This may take time because one needs to develop a trusting relationship. When their stereotypes about your own group are shared, donÃ¢â¬â¢t defend or deny them; instead, hear them as being as likely and as valid as your own stereotypes about other groups. Let yourself understand and accept how this view might be shared and believed by those who donÃ¢â¬â¢t have your experience. 11. Feeling good about ourselves is important in being able to accept people who are different from us. We need to develop a strong sense of security. People need to feel secure enough to be self-critical and to accept and learn from critical feedback by others. Those who are unable to accept critical feedback often project blame onto those who are different from themselves. 12. Accepting indecision is an important learning style. We need to develop an acceptance within ourselves for indecision. To be undecided is not only acceptable, but often desirable over having fast answers before all the needed information is available. To be in a position of not knowing and not reaching a conclusion is a valid position. This often requires a sense of self-acceptance and personal security. The need to have a correct answer quickly and not accepting the uncertainty of not knowing is strongly associated with being prejudiced. 13. Developing empathy skills is an effective way of increasing our acceptance of others. The ability to empathize with others is a teachable skill and is highly related to tolerance. There is no other skill that has been so clearly shown as being related to acceptance of others. The work of Gerard Egan, George Gazda, Norman Kagan and others is important here. Some of these peoples books are very usable. 14. Develop listening skills so that we can really hear other people. We need to develop listening skills and an appreciation for listening to other people. 15. Develop an appreciation for the complexities of the universe. Knowing that one truth does not preclude another is an important concept. We need to develop and nurture our own appreciation for the complexities of theuniverse. Our ability to accept contradictory truths is related to our tolerance for others. It is important to accept that there are truths that, I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t understand. It is also important to recognize that what may appear to be conflicting and contradictory at first glance are not always so. One example of this is, I am like all other humans, while at the same time, I am like no other human. 16. Developing our own ability to experience caring about other people Is not only important for them, but allows us to be touch with our own connectedness and adds meaning to our lives. We need to show caring, even for those people who are unable to return the caring at this time. Because our lives are interconnected, the world is simply too small for us to not care anymore. 17. Learning about other groups is an important way to develop understanding. We need to learn about those groups we might feel prejudice toward. It is helpful to read about these groups in books the members of the groups have written, and its also helpful to go out of our way to visit with members of these groups. 18. Valuing diversity in human appearance and in nature is important. Diversity is the reality of nature and the strength of a species. We need to think and behave in ways which value and learn from diversity. This is not only in the area of racial diversity, but also in diverse ways of thinking, problem-solving and the many other ways in which people differ that affect human interactions. We cannot expect ourselves or others to value one type of diversity and reject others. 19. Seeking self-understanding increases the ability to accept oneself and others. We need to personally value and seek self-understanding. Those who are self-aware and self-critical are less likely to blame others. They know their own shortcomings and capabilities and have the self-esteem to accept responsibility for their behaviors. 20. Responding to prejudicial jokes is critical if we are to stand for something and identify ourselves. Initially, we need to respond to prejudicial jokes in a way that clearly communicates two things: 1) That we do not believe the person intended to harm others. 2) That we personally find meaning in the joke that is harmful. It is nearly impossible to make general statements about prejudicial jokes, but it is helpful to speak up and it is helpful not to read intent into a situation where it may not exist. A response is needed when the joke is at the expense of any group. It is this type of humor which is harmful. Initially it is most effective to use a minimal non-response. That means that we make it clear that we do not appreciate the humor or find it funny, but we do not alienate the person or lose our position for future influence by overreacting. If the other personÃ¢â¬â¢s prejudicial joke telling continues, it is appropriate to continue protesting the jokes and making the protests stronger. I know one person who starts by simply saying he does not find the joke humorous. 21. Responding to negative terms about groups of people helps us to know what we stand for and helps others to know us as well. We need to respond to static terms or names for other groups of people in ways which show that we feel that the use of these terms is inappropriate. (This should be the response when the term is at the expense of any group. Its the process which is harmful. ) It is most effective to use a minimal non-response. We are of little value in helping another person to reduce their prejudice if we reject or define them as a worthless bigot. 22. Research your investments so that you are only investing in firms with strong policies of affirmative action and respect for human rights. Many of us may have our savings in tax shelters which may not be socially responsible. I discovered that while one state university had mission statements about both education and health, it invested much of the employees retirement funds in the tobacco industry. I suggest that you check your investments in The Better World Investment Guide| What Is Prejudice? Prejudice is a baseless and usually negative attitude toward members of a group. Common features of prejudice include negative feelings, stereotyped beliefs, and a tendency to discriminate against members of the group. While specific definitions of prejudice given by social scientists often differ, most agree that it involves prejudgments (usually negative) about members of a group. Types of PrejudicePrejudice can be based upon a number of factors including sex, race, age, sexual orientations, nationality, socioeconomic status and religion. Some of the most well-known types of prejudice include: * Racism * Sexism * Classicism * Homophobia * Nationalism * Religious prejudice * AgismPrejudice and StereotypingWhen prejudice occurs, stereotyping and discrimination may also result. In many cases, prejudices are based upon stereotypes. A stereotype is a simplified assumption about a group based on prior assumptions. Stereotypes can be both positive (women are warm and nurturing) or negative (teenagers are lazy). Stereotypes can lead to faulty beliefs, but they can also result in both prejudice and discrimination. According to psychologist Gordon Allport, prejudice and stereo types emerge in part as a result of normal human thinking. In order to make sense of the world around us, it is important to sort informati.